2 edition of Surface mining and the flood of April 1977 found in the catalog.
Surface mining and the flood of April 1977
Willie R Curtis
by Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North eastern Forest Experiment Station in Upper Darby, Pa
Written in English
|Statement||Willie R. Curtis|
|Series||USDA Forest Service research note NE -- 248|
|Contributions||United States. Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station (Radnor, Pa.)|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||4 p. :|
Surface mining is a type of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit are removed. It is the opposite of underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral removed through shafts or tunnels.. Surface mining is used when deposits of commercially useful mineral s or rock are found near the surface; that is, where the "overburden" (surface . basin of northwestern Ohio. Furthermore, the equations are not applicable to basins that have substantial areas of surface mining or urbanization. Techniques for determining flood-flow frequency have been revised since the equations were developed (Inter- agency Advisory Committee on Water Data, ), and 12 additional years of flood.
Editor's Note -- On April 1, , the Environmental Protection Agency released new guidelines on mountaintop mining. For more on this update, check out our Surprising Science blog. Huffman said that was the only incident where an active mining permit had caused or contributed to any flooding problems, at least as far as he heard from DEP inspectors. And in this case, he said, the sediment ditch was built — perhaps improperly — on top of some pre-law (prior to the mining act) waste.
They would speak to the continued poverty and forced migration from the mountains of central Appalachia in the ’s and ’s. Finally, protest songs would lend their power to the struggles for Black Lung compensation in the ’s and the fight against the social and environmental destruction of surface mining in the ’s. as the water went down after the April flood, cries were heard that strip mining was largely to blame. The author takes a look at the accusation and says, to put it briefly, that it's so: "the charges ofthe mountain people that surface mining increased the levels of the floods have been scientifically examined and proven.".
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Surface mining and the flood of April [Willie R Curtis; Northeastern Forest Experiment Station (Radnor, Pa.); United States.
Forest Service.] -- Data from experimental sites in Breathitt County, Kentucky, and Raleigh County, West Virginia, showed that during a major rainstorm on 4 April streamflow from surface-mined watersheds peaked. Curtis, Willie R.: Surface mining and the flood of April / (Upper Darby, Pa.: Dept.
of Agriculture, Forest Service, North eastern Forest Experiment Station, ), also by Pa.) Northeastern Forest Experiment Station (Radnor and United States Forest Service (page images at. The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of (SMCRA) is the primary federal law that regulates the environmental effects of coal mining in the United States.
SMCRA created two programs: one for regulating active coal mines and a second for reclaiming abandoned mine lands. SMCRA also created the Office of Surface Mining, an agency within the Department of Enacted by: the 95th United States Congress.
surface mining is under way and will be reported some time in the near future. Because there is at present considerable interest in and discussion of the flooding during early Aprilit seems appropriate to share some knowledge gained from our.
Prior to the passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of (SMCRA), no national law regulated coal surface mining. Reclamation (when conducted) varied considerably (National Research Council, ).
Mining without reclamation resulted in deep pits with high waste rock piles on the downhill side and high, steep rock cuts.
Surface mining and reclamation effects on flood response of watersheds in the central Surface mining and the flood of April 1977 book Plateau region J. Ferrari,1 T. Lookingbill,1 B. McCormick,1 P. Townsend,2 and K. Eshleman1 Received 23 April ; revised 14 January ; accepted 9 February ; published 7 April B.
After mining. On the right side, the same watershed is shown after the mountain rock layers have been removed, crushed, and deposited in the stream valley.
Flat surfaces of remaining rock layers are less permeable, producing higher surface runoff into a flood control channel (f) and valley fill (g) (height is approximate).
(Federal Register, ) will encourage in creased consideration of subsidence effects prior to mining. At present, however, very few mining companies in the United States make routine leveling surveys of the ground surface.
Increased surface monitoring is needed in order to imple ment current mining regulations. The Anjean mines were opened in in the Sewell and Fire Creek seams. This has probably been the Greenbrier Field's most productive operation, utilizing both deep and surface mining methods to extract the smokeless coal along Big Clear Creek.
Mining at. Employed as a miner on Ap ; or 2. Twelve months of cumulative surface mining or equivalent experience on or before October 2, ; or 3. Began employment as a miner after Apbut before October 2, and who has received new miner training under § or under the proposed requirements published Ap ; or 4.
Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing.
Curtis WR () Surface mining and the flood of April US Forest Service Research Note NE–4. Curtis WR () Surface mining and the hydrologic balance. Min Congr J (July)– Google Scholar; Dyer KL () Effects on water quality of coal mining in the basin of the North Fork Kentucky River, eastern Kentucky.
USGS Water. Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay.
The Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) is a branch of the United States Department of the is the federal agency entrusted with the implementation and enforcement of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of (SMCRA), which attached a per-ton fee to all extracted coal in order to fund an interest-accruing trust to be.
Coal was found in the s in Virginia, but use remained small scale until the s. Mountaintop removal mining has been practiced since the s. The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of (SMCRA) was signed into law by President Jimmy Carter, after being vetoed twice by Gerald.
From April 4 to 5,an extremely devastating flood occurred in the Big Sandy River basin. Economic damage approached $50 million in the Tug Fork valley alone (Runner, ; Runner and Chin, ). This flood prompted much speculation as to what affect various land uses, particularly surface mining, have on the flood and sediment discharge.
Strip-mining in the United States is governed by a federal law, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA), called "SMACK-ra" by those who work with it. The act was passed after six years of congressional battles. Periodic flooding on many watersheds in the region such as the major flood in April (Runner, ; Runner and Chin, ) is speculated to be the result of surface-mining operations in the area.
With billion tons of coal in reserve, there is certain to be land-use changes in the future that may affect flooding in the basin.
Open Library is an open, editable library catalog, building towards a web page for every book ever published. Read, borrow, and discover more than 3M books for free. Surface mining and the flood of April Willie R Curtis Not In Library. Survey for library development in Fayette and Raleigh Counties, West V Robert Whitefield Bullen.
habitable land lies on the narrow flood plains between steep mountains. The Tug Fork basin has a long history of devastating floods culminating with the April flood (Runner and Chin, ).
This flood prompted much speculation as to what effect surface mining has on the flood and sediment characteristics of Appalachian rivers. For their part, companies have argued the floods are "acts of God," or that regulations work to minimize flooding—at least since the Surface Mining and Reclamation Act was passed, requiring.A Summary of the Legislative History of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of and the Relevant Legal Periodical Literature.
11 Land Use and Environmental L. Dev. Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary. l9S3. Improper surface-mining practices caused or worsened flooding that killed a man and destroyed or damaged numerous homes in Knox County in June, more than 70 people affected by the disaster have.